Contemporaries of Larsson
The Next Generation
The Essence of this Vade Mecum








Contemporaries of Larsson


With the writing of the Saxophone Concerto, Larsson contributed significantly to the growth of the saxophone tradition in Sweden. A tradition which has moved on to other composers and performers, who have brought about international recognition and success. Maintaining his belief of reaching for the middle course, he wrote a concerto which was not too remote in its harmonic structure, a work which gained a popularity it would not have had using harsher sonorities. A review of one of Rascher's performances in 1936 implies that saxophone Concerto, after all, was an amusing piece of music, despite a less pleasing opening movement.


The overall mediocre and gray character of the first movement did not provide the soloist with any major opportunities where he could show off his virtuosity. The lack thereof was regained in the final allegro, a witty and charming movement, which is one of Larsson¥s most successful scherzos.[1]


Larsson, however, avoided associating himself with popular music, maintaining that the Concerto demanded recognition as a composition belonging in the concerto hall.


More than any other composition, this Saxophone Concerto confirms Larsson's extraordinary talent as a composer. The concerto is a masterpiece of the genre.[2]


Larsson contributed to the early stages of the art of saxophone performance by writing for an instrument, which now has grown to become commonly used among contemporary composers. A significant composition for the saxophone repertoire came from a humble and modest composer, whose background was from the most ordinary of families. Given by his parents the most common first names that a Swedish child could be given, Larsson emerged in the shadow of World War I and World War II, to become the major national composer in Sweden during the twentieth century. He became known as "Den folkkäre Lars-Erik Larsson" (The revered Lars-Erik Larsson). Both Larsson's colleagues and his students would further expand the Swedish saxophone repertoire.


Historically, Larsson is associated with the group of Swedish composers called "Trettiotalisterna" (Generation of the 1930s). The term refers to a group of four composers who all were born during the first decade of the twentieth century and who were the most prominent young composers in Sweden during this period. In addition to Larsson the group consisted of Dag Wirén (1905-1986), Gunnar de Frumerie (1908-1987) and Erland von Koch (b.1910). Of these three, Koch became the one who would follow up on Larsson's contribution to the Swedish saxophone repertoire, in cooperation with Sigurd Rascher. As with Larsson's composition, Koch's writing would be highly influenced by the neo-classical trends of the 1930s, where melody and lyricism were elevated. Resembling Larsson's neo-classicism, Koch would prefer light textures.


The melody is like a balloon: it cannot rise with heavy ballast.[3]


However, throughout his career, Koch would, in contrast to Larsson, consistently use Swedish folk music as a point of departure in his compositions.


My aim is a simple, straight forward melodic style, which I sometimes like to connect with folk music, and a firm, rhythmic profile. I like my harmony to be uncomplicated. The older you get, the more you come to realize the importance of melody.[4]


It would take another twenty years before Sigurd Rascher took advantage of the contact he had established with Larsson and Swedish music life. This delay was probably due to the occurrence of the World war II and Rascher's emigration to the United States. While in the States, however, Rascher maintained his associations with Swedish composers through Ingolf Dahl (1912-1970), whose parents were both Swedish. Dahl's Concerto was dedicated to Rascher in 1949. In 1958 Erland von Koch completed his first contribution to the repertoire, in cooperation with Rascher.


I had for a long time admired the playing of the world famous saxophonist Sigurd Rascher, but it had never occurred to me to try and write for this instrument until, during a visit to Stockholm he called me up and asked whether I would like to compose a concerto for him. We immediately invited him to our home in Stockholm, and soon the music room was filled with the loveliest and most dazzling sounds from his saxophone, rich and deep, sparkling and high, every possible tempo and shade of tone. The maestro wanted to convince me of his instrument's resources, and of his own. We became friends at once, and after he had returned to his home outside New York I started working on the Concerto. It was completed in the summer of 1958, after many letters and sheets of music had been sent to and fro across the Atlantic Ocean.


Rascher gave the first world performance of the saxophone concerto in 1959 during a tour in Australia. Since that, he has performed the piece all around the world.


I have tried to help in regaining for the saxophone its rightful status as an instrument for serious music making. The solo part is very exacting, especially in the high register. The instrument's resources have also been exploited to the utmost.[5]


As with the concerto by Larsson, no comprehensive analysis or discussion about Koch's concerto has been written, except for Brian Ayscue's article "Erland von Koch and his Saxophone Concerto," published in three parts, in three subsequent issues of The Saxophone Symposium, 1983.[6] Unfortunately, Ayscue primarily provides the reader only with descriptive information concerning form and overall structure. The article lacks significant analytical observations and conclusions. His commentaries remain general regarding Koch's relation to Swedish folk music and the influence this heritage plays on his music. Beyond Ayscue's article, only short and somewhat ambiguous statement can be found, as the following by Lennart Sjöberg:


The opening theme of Koch's Saxophone Concerto resembles the music of Ravel.[7]


Without mentioning possible influences form earlier saxophone concertos, such as Larsson's concerto, it is apparent that, both Brian Ayscue and Lennart Sjöberg have not come to realize that a relevant model and strong influence for Koch's concerto is found next door, in Larsson's studio.


The unique quality of the work becomes apparent after an examination of the various components. Erland von Koch has succeeded with the challenges inherent in the writing of a concerto. His Saxophone Concerto bespeaks a musical sincerity, integrity and elegance that should rank the work among the most respected in the repertoire.[8]


It was Larsson's concerto as well as his opus op.45 that became point of departure for Koch's concerto.


Chronologically, 1958 corresponds to Larsson's completion of the concertino series, op.45. By this time Larsson had returned to his neo-classical ideals from the 1930's, but now with a more elaborate harmonic approach. Subsequently, there was a natural revival of neo-classicism in the air, encouraging Koch to glance at Larsson's accomplishment from 1934. The overall form in Koch's concerto does not depart anymore from classical common practice than does Larsson's op.14. A three movement plan, fast-slow-fast, with a opening "Allegro moderato" in 2/2 and a finale "Allegro vivace", it is almost, identical to Larsson's concerto. It is interesting to compare similarities between the two concertos, written within a quarter of a century of each other by two close colleagues. In the case of Koch's Concerto it seems obvious that Koch must have had his colleague's score in front of him when sketching his own concerto. In terms of the form of the first movement, it is possible to apply the same thematic scheme as in Larsson's concerto. The following observations can be interpreted as exact copying of Larsson's concerto; two beats of tutti precede the solo entrance. The solo statement of the primary theme precedes the tutti statement of the primary theme (Koch's rehearsal no. 1. = bar 10 in Larson).[9] An obligato theme appears in the solo line while the tutti repeats the primary theme, followed by the second tutti statement of the primary theme, now entering a fourth higher (Koch's rehearsal no. 2 = bar 18 in Larsson). The secondary theme is first presented entirely by the soloist (Koch's rehearsal no.5 = bar 46 in Larsson) and then repeated by the tutti (Koch's rehearsal no.6 = 64 in Larsson). The exposition finally comes to a close by a tutti presentation of closing material (Koch's rehearsal no.7 = bar 80 in Larsson), follow by a solo repeat of the same (Koch's rehearsal no.8 = bar 94 in Larsson). Koch's opening motive is almost an exact inversion of Larsson's opening. The secondary themes in both concertos are characterized by the same rhythmic division and same melodic contours (Koch's rehearsal no.5 = bar 46 in Larsson). Both closing sections are characterized by Scherzando-like elements as well (Koch's rehearsal no.7 = bar 80 in Larsson). Koch progresses through the development section (Koch's rehearsal no.9 ) with the same succession and elaboration of thematic material as Larsson proceeded through his development (bar 110). Extremely striking in that regard is the very opening of the development, placing a tutti statement of the secondary theme under figurative triplets passages in the solo part. It is apparent that Koch only replaced thematic material and harmonic structure with his own variation or version of the model provided by Larsson. Furthermore, neither the structure of the cadenza of the first movement, nor the meter change in the middle section of the second movement, decrease the validity of such a conclusion. Nor does the finale's transformation (thematic metamorphosis) of the first movement's opening theme deny further association. In other words, the analysis given for Larsson's concerto in chapter III of this document, would basically apply to Koch's concerto as well. According to Koch's own statement, ìthe instrument's resources have also been exploited to the utmost.î This provided the solo part with slap tongue and altissimo register, again similar to Larsson's concerto. Elements as such must have been carefully calculated and suggested through correspondence with the soloist. How much influence Rascher actually had, can still be questioned, according to Koch himself.


Not a single tone was changed by Sigurd Rascher, but he had told me his range previously.[10]


The equivalent application of slap tongue and altissimo register in Larsson's concerto must therefore have been preceded by a similar discussion between composer and soloist.


Koch's concerto cannot to be mistaken for anyone else. His concerto is predominantly characterized by the composer's own trade marks, resembling the harmonic atmosphere motivic elements found in most of Koch's compositions. Still, the concerto is lacking elements of originally, which has brought the piece to less recognition, in comparison with its model. This concerto was just the beginning of Koch's cooperation with Rascher, only a start for further contributions to the Swedish saxophone repertoire.


Four years later, the Concerto Piccolo (1962), with a dedication to Rascher and his daughter Carina, would appear. The concept of a double concerto of this kind (soprano-, and alto saxophone and string orchestra) must be considered as a rarity in the saxophone repertoire in general, and in particular for the Swedish saxophone repertoire.


With probable inspiration from Larsson's series of concertinos for various instruments, Koch completed a series of monologues for various instruments. Monolog nr.4 (1975), again with dedication to Sigurd and Carina Rascher, contributed to still another less than usual genre of saxophone repertoire - music for saxophone alone. Koch's monologues remains within the concept of music for amateurs. Therefore, the Monolog nr.4 is lacking few elements of virtuosity. It remains within the fundamental range of the instrument, contrasting earlier compositions dedicated to Rascher. Such a modest approach to technical expectations also opens up the possibility of choosing a saxophone of any size for performances of the piece. The score simply indicates "Saxophone in Eb or Bb Solo". Further, the writer has no objections to a performance involving only the first movement of the Monologue.


Monolog nr.4 stands as a valuable piece of music, providing both amateurs and professional player with a composition suitable for any occasion, audience, and size of saxophone. With a composition as the Monolog nr.4, the characteristics stand clear; the use of folk music clichés and the application of repeating complete sections/phrases in inversion. An obvious use of Swedish folk music is found in part I, where the returning phrase ìa piacereî resembles the herds maidens' singing[11], from the province of Dalarna. However, for someone familiar with the characteristic melodies of Swedish folk tunes, the associations can be heard throughout the piece. This is a concept that applies to Koch's music in general, and there is always a thin line between Koch's own melodic structure and those based on folk music clichés. This is confirmed by Koch's own analysis of his music.


Sometimes it is difficult to decide which melodies are my own and which are influenced by folk music.[12]


Another typical device in Koch's composition is the reappearance of the opening phrases in the coda of the last movement, a device which occurs in both the Monologue and the Concerto.


Another interesting contribution to saxophone repertoire is Koch's Dialogue for Soprano and Alto Saxophone, (1975). Koch also wrote in the saxophone quartet genre, as for example Miniatures for Saxophone Quartet (1970) and Saxophonia, a concerto for saxophone quartet and symphonic wind ensemble, (1976), became of the existence of the Rascher Quartet.


Rascher also inspired another composer, Werner Wolf Glaser (1910), who dedicated a number of compositions to him. Glaser's compositions, however, like those dedicated to Jules de Vries, have not achieved the same recognition by Swedish saxophonists, as for example Larsson's and Koch's major works for the instrument.


The collaboration between Rascher and Koch not only resulted in a listing of various compositions for the saxophone, but it also encouraged other American saxophonists of Swedish heritage to work with Swedish composers. In 1979 Frederick Hemke commissioned a symphony for saxophone and orchestra by Allan Pettersson (1911-1980). Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians notes:


Symphony no. 16 originally designed as Concerto for Alto Saxophone and Orchestra, written for the American saxophonist Fred Hemke. Premiered posthumous, Stockholm, February 24, 1983. Soloist, Frederick Hemke.[13]



The Next Generation


Since 1934 Swedish saxophone repertoire has grown to a sizable listing of compositions. The repertoire now expands over all genres and types of instrumentation. The compositional style includes all universal trends in composing, resulting in a extraordinary blend of forms and expressions.


Among compositions with an extraordinary unique form, contrasting with Larsson's and Koch's compositions, one finds Thomas Liljeholm's (1944) Strata, for alto saxophone solo (1989). With a motivic spinout resembling minimalistic techniques, this through composed, single movement piece reaches bursting climaxes by making use of the instrument's wide rage and dynamic facilities. As the title Strata depicts, the dialogue-like division between alternation of registers and dynamics becomes the main characteristic of the piece. Alternation between motivic elements of contrasting nature appears as well. The application of multiphonics and slap tongue reinforces an alternation of contrasting expressions throughout the composition. The facility inherent in the instrument has been used to the limit, as well as the performer's abilities of sparkle with intense energy throughout, is a necessity condition for a successful performance. Strata was premiered by Ronny Stensson, to whom it was dedicated. In January 1995 the piece was presented to the Chicago audience at the Swedish American Museum. A review by Geoffrey Shaw Monmouth appeared in Nordstjernan.


The series has already been critically praised for bringing 20th century scores of such composers as Lars-Erik Larsson and Erland von Koch to public attention. A recent recital saw the world premiere of ìStrataî, an avant-garde work of, composer Thomas Liljeholm (b.1944), accomplished violinist, clarinetist and director of Musica Vitae in Sweden. Sveriges Riksradio has commissioned major works from Lijeholm.


ìStrataî is a long daunting solo work exploiting a vernacular common to the most recent generation of composers (roughly from the fifties and forward) such as multiphonics (several tones sounding simultaneously), extremely wide jumps in pitch requiring great strength, extreme and unusual dynamics and a growing assortment of extra-musical sounds. Anders Lundegård, Fulbright Scholar and doctor of music candidate at Northwestern University, bravely fulfilled all the commands of this difficult score and succeeded in drawing the audience into its mesmerizing atmosphere.[14]


Apparently, the reviewer mistakenly interpreted the first performance in the United States as the world premiere.


In the category of pieces for saxophone and piano, Lars Ekström's (b.1956) Cry my dreams (1994) stands out as a unique contribution to the repertoire, due to its somewhat programmatic approach. The composer says in the preface:


This piece is composed in the shadow of what just now is happening in the area of Europe, previously known as Yugoslavia. Yugoslavia is a country where I spent part of my childhood. I am thinking of each individual's deepest grief, a kind of despair, which I might never comprehend, only able to show my concerns for.


After reading the preface, it is possible to hear exploding bombs, fear, and the people's desperate begging for peace, throughout the performance of this composition.


From the youngest generation, born in the 1960's and 1970's, composers such as Mats Larsson (1965) and Henrik Nilsson (1971) brought forth contributions to the Swedish saxophone repertoire. Among Mats Larsson's earliest works one finds a Sonatine for saxophone and piano (1982), which is divided in three movements; Allegro, Adagio con sentimento, Allegro con fuoco. The first movement is characterized by the use of triplets against duplets in the accompaniment. The finale extends the rhythmic complexity to involve fast meter changes where the rhythm resembles the score of the Rite of Spring. Mid way through the finale, after a short quote form a well known Swedish tune, known as "Sommar, sommar", the rhythmical complexity returns with an indication "tempo giusto di Rite of Spring". His Sonatine nr. 2 för saxofon och piano was written in 1987.


In October 1989 Mats Larsson completed GOPAK, for SATB saxophone quartet. The piece consists of one single movement with various tempo changes, culminating in a finale "piu vivo". Characteristics of the work are the continuous meter changes and complex rhythmic variety. Further, Mats Larsson takes advantage of the saxophone's extraordinary possibilities of expression, applying the use of slap tongue and growl in his writing. Through studies at Ingesunds Musikhögskola, among other places, Mats Larsson has had access to an advanced group of saxophonists, and was therefore able to learn and explore the optimal use of the instrument.


Henrik Nilsson's Solo För Sopransaxofon (1991) stays within traditional forms, not demanding any extreme register or the production of any unconventional sounds. All three movements make use of a sonata like structure - exposition, developmental section and recapitulation of opening material. The thematic material of the second movement is basically a rhythmic transformation of motives derived from the opening movement.


Beyond these illustrative examples an extraordinary rich and extensive repertoire exists. An appendix to this document lists the essential contributions to Swedish saxophone repertoire.



The essence of this Vade Mecum


The author is well aware of the possibility of exploring other approaches to the fast growth of saxophone playing in Sweden other than dedicating that honor to one single composition and its composer - Op.14 by Lars-Erik Larsson. An historically and still present strong tradition of wind ensembles (e.g. brass bands and marching bands) on both professional and amateur levels gives enough reason to explain the considerable number of wind players in Sweden, and thereby explain the growth of saxophone repertoire. A development of this kind of rationale lies beyond the limits of this document. Generally speaking, however, wind ensembles have appeared in most communities in Sweden since the middle of the nineteenth century. These have been formed by various political, religious and/or other ideological organizations. Of significance are also those ensembles formed by workers at glassworks and paper mills. Significant regions that have formed ensembles were, and are still to be found in the province of Småland. Especially well known is the Kosta Musikkår, founded at the glasswork in Kosta. One of Sweden's most prominent saxophone virtuoso, Jörgen Pettersson, received his first musical training while growing up in Kosta, and participating in the Kosta Musikkår. Similarly did the eminent soloist Christer Johnsson and his likewise distinguished colleague Ronny Stensson earn their first musical training in the Alvesta Musikkår, in Småland. These three soloists have also in common frequent and unique performances of Larsson's concerto.


Other branches of growth for wind ensembles are the bands of the Swedish military and the Salvation Army. The Salvation Army, established in Sweden 1882, had by 1971 grown to include 247 orchestras (110 of which were wind ensembles), with over 70 000 players.[15] Military bands have been in existence since the beginning of the seventeenth century. The uniformed musician has functioned as an important instructor and inspiration for the musical life in every community.[16] When looking at the growth of saxophone performing and repertoire in the neighboring Scandinavian countries, Sweden seems to stand by itself. This is true, even though Norway, Finland, Denmark and Sweden have a more or less similar cultural background, including the establishment of wind ensembles. Horns made out of bronze were used by the Vikings in Norway as early as the ninth century.[17] In Finland, military music was introduced by German Knights when war Was proclaimed against Russia in 1554.[18] Denmark's military music harkens back to the twelfth century.[19] The Salvation Army was established 1887 in Denmark, 1888 in Norway and 1889 in Finland.[20] As for now, there is no equivalent to the yearly international saxophone symposiums held at Ingesund in any of Sweden's neighboring countries. Even in Germany, there is no such tradition of saxophone playing at any German musical institution, as is to be found in Sweden.


One other alternative reasoning to understanding the faster growth of saxophone repertoire in Sweden would be Sweden's more merciful escape from World war II. The cultural life of Finland, Norway and Denmark was of course suppressed by enemies. However, this reasoning only applies to the development of saxophone music from the early 1940's and on. It does not devalue Larsson's contribution and significance to saxophone repertoire in 1934.


As mentioned in the introduction of this document, Norway, Denmark and Finland in the 1930's, in contrast to Sweden, had an ongoing concentration in musicology, through their publications of a national music journal. It is clear that these countries did not have any less awareness or interest in western art music trends, than did Swedish composers and musicians. The saxophone did not develop, however, in these countries at the same fast rate. Sigurd Rascher, while teaching in Malmö, Sweden, also thaught at the Conservatory in Copenhagen. This could have led to a remarkable development of saxophone performance in Denmark. Research compiled by Gail Levinsky[21] indicates that saxophone methods, such as Modern Saxophon Skole by Holger Nathansohn (København: Wilhem Hansen Musik-forlag, 1934) and 158 Saxophon Uebungen by Rascher (Københaven: Wilhelm Hansen Musik-Forlag, 1935) began to appear in Denmark during the 1930's. Methods of this nature did not appear in Sweden. Still, a faster growth of saxophone playing in Denmark was not to be the actual effect. On the continent, Saxophone had been taught at the Geneva Conservatory prior to 1850. Various regional conservatories in France offered saxophone instruction, such as the Lille Conservatory, in 1879. Also in Belgium, Spain and Italy, saxophone was introduced and taught during the second half of the nineteenth century. The saxophone class at the Paris conservatory was created in 1857, but was not re-established until 1942, by the director Claude Delvincourt, professor being Marcel Mule.[22]


Lars-Erik Larsson with his Op.14 functioned as a catalyst for the saxophone movement in Sweden. Because of Larsson's cooperation with Rascher, not only was this Concerto premiered in 1934, but, another milestone in the repertoire - the concerto by Glazonouv, dedicated to Rascher, was premiered in Sweden as well. If it had not been for strong international relations within the Swedish saxophone association and the fact that Sweden stands together with France and United States as one of the leading countries of saxophone performance, the author and his American teacher would not have meet at the Saxophone Symposium at Ingesund, Sweden. It is the writer's intention that a document of this sort will increase the interest in research of Scandinavian music in general and Swedish saxophone music in particular, reaching for a global appreciation and sharing of saxophone repertoire.


By concluding this document with a poem, the author takes the freedom of expressing his personal gratefulness towards the possibilities of exploring other cultures and foreign art.[23] The poem depicts the exploration of new places and cultures, and concludes with the expression that extraneous experiences and ideas appear less foreign once you familiarize yourself with them. In representation of Larsson's continuous search for new styles and his willingness to bring a once obscure instrument into the classical tradition, the author decided to not provide a translation. It is hoped that the reader will, by translating the poem, grasp the challenge of more practically approaching the cultural environment in which Swedish composers have found the seeds of inspiration. By so doing, a step forward has been taken in the approach to a closer examination and appreciation of Lars-Erik Larsson and Swedish saxophone repertoire.



En Smålänning


En Smålänning

uti världen for

och fick känning

av dess vidd så stor.


Och han titta

uti varje hörn

om han hitta

någon minsta törn


av den rämmning

som han förut hört

ristat lämning

I allt mjukt och skört.


Men allt vittna

om en salig fred

som han bevittna

där från Småland skred


en Smålänning

uti världen for

utan hämning

sakta, saligt for.


Gud så vackert

fåglar, blommor, bin.

Härligt läckert

smakar frukters vin.



Anders Olof Lundegård



Copyright © 2002



[1]"Teater Musik Film." Dagens Nyheter, 23 January, 1936.

[2]"Tilja, film och rad." Svenska Dagbladet, 23 January, 1936.

[3]Brian Ayscue," Erland von Koch and his Saxophone Concerto," The Saxophone Symposium 8 (n4 1983):14.

[4]Stig Jacobsson, and Hans-Gunnar Peterson, Swedish Composers of the 20th Century (Stockholm: Swedish Music Information Center, 1993), p.107.

[5]Erland von Koch, jacket notes to Saxophon-Konzert (EMI, 1969. -LP. Sigurd Rascher , Stig Westerberg/Munich PhilharmoniC).

[6]Brian Ayscue," Erland von Koch and his Saxophone Concerto," The Saxophone Symposium 8 (n2 1983):8-17, (n3 1983):8-14, (n4 1983):8-15.

[7]L.Sjöberg, "30-talismen då och nu" Musikrevy 25 (n5 1970): 246.

[8]Brian Ayscue," Erland von Koch and his Saxophone Concerto," The Saxophone Symposium 8 (n4 1983):14-15.

[9] Rehearsal numbers refer to the piano reduction published by Edition Marbot, Hamburg, 1959.

[10]Brian Ayscue," Erland von Koch and his Saxophone Concerto," The Saxophone Symposium 8 (n4 1983):14.

[11] Characteristics of the herds maidens' singing are the use of a minor scale, often decorated with grace notes and rich embellishments. This kind of singing is based on improvisation but certain clichés have been established through tradition, by which they have been inherited by word of mouth.

[12]Brian Ayscue," Erland von Koch and his Saxophone Concerto," The Saxophone Symposium 8 (n4 1983):14.

[13]Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians, 8th ed. by Nicolas Slonimsky. (New York: Schirmer Books A division of Macmillan, Inc. 1992.), p.753.

[14]îChamber music series presents rich and varied fare,î Nordstjernan, 2 March 1995.

[15] Bo alphonce and P. Haapiainen, ìFrälsningsarmén,î Sohlmans Musiklexikon, 5 vl. 2nd ed. by Hans strand. Stockholm: Sohlmans Förlag AB, 1977.

[16] S. Strand, ìMilitärmusik,î Sohlmans Musiklexikon, 5 vl. 2nd ed. by Hans strand. Stockholm: Sohlmans Förlag AB, 1977.

[17] A. Bang, ìMilitärmusik,î Sohlmans Musiklexikon, 5 vl. 2nd ed. by Hans strand. Stockholm: Sohlmans Förlag AB, 1977.

[18] P. Talvio,ìMilitärmusik,î Sohlmans Musiklexikon, 5 vl. 2nd ed. by Hans strand. Stockholm: Sohlmans Förlag AB, 1977.

[19]Sigurd Berg, ìMilitärmusik,î Sohlmans Musiklexikon, 5 vl. 2nd ed. by Hans strand. Stockholm: Sohlmans Förlag AB, 1977.

[20] Bo alphonce and P. Haapiainen, ìFrälsningsarmén,î Sohlmans Musiklexikon, 5 vl. 2nd ed. by Hans strand. Stockholm: Sohlmans Förlag AB, 1977.

[21]Gail Levinsky, An Analysis and Comparison of Saxophone Methods Published Between 1846-1946. Doctoral dissertation ( Evanston: Northwestern University, in process).

[22]Frederick L. Hemke. The Early History of the Saxophone. Doctoral Dissertation. (University of Wisconsin: Frederick Hemke, 1975). p.245-286.


[23] The poem was set to music in May, 1992.